In many parts of the world, hundreds of millions of people still lack access to clean and safe drinking water. A 2017 joint monitoring report by Unicef and the World Health Organization marked that number at more than 844 million people worldwide, many of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa. Among the worst affected are those living in urban areas, and especially informal settlements, where population growth and rapid urbanization are outstripping already inadequate infrastructure.
Routing and rerouting water supplies to desalination and other plants requires considerable expertise. Unique topographies and steep elevations create real pressure management and pumping challenges as well as significant energy and water capacity needs.